I think think that any of the explanations offered could be right. I also think that there is no way to tell for certain what really happened unless you retreive the animal. I personally have never shot a berger bullet at close ranges. I have had one shot at 615 with a 168 VLD that I dont know for sure what happened. I shot while the buck was brodside and bullet hit and deer went down. After about 3 minutes, we thought he was dead and all of the sudden he got up and hobbled down one side of a canyon and started up the next. I fired a bullet, this time at 535yds and the deer dissapeared again. This time we waited 15 minutes to see if he would get back up. We then started up the bottom of the canyon to retreive him. After about 35 minutes we came to where he fell only to find blood spray on the scrub oak and a puddle of blood about the size of a hat. He hobbled off. We never seen him but at some points he was only about 15 yards from us as we were walking up the canyon to go get him. We found chunks of what looked to be sholder blade or some type of bone where i first hit him and lots of blood. We followed the trail for about 400 yards down the canyon and then it just dissapeared. Still dont know what happened because i never retreived the animal. Maybe it was my fault, maybe it was the bullet, maybe it was just a tough old deer that had a very strong will to live. I will never know.