Friend of mine had to put an old cow down. Beef cow. Just got a new 45-70. 300 grain Hornady Lever revolution. 50 yards. First shot behind the shoulder. No reaction. 2nd shot no reaction. 8th shot finally dropped her at about 80 yards. 8 exit holes right behind the shoulder. This changes my thoughts on mass/velocity somewhat. Thought it was interesting on a 1000+ lb animal.