If you were to cut the primer pocket deeper to facilitate the slightly taller primer.....yes! But, I would strongly suggest starting over with load development, as with any other component change.
There would be no benefit to going with the rifle primer, except having thicker primer cup metal for the higher pressures from the 460/500 S&W cartridges! Not needed or an advantage with the lower pressure 44 Magnum!
If you have adequate firing pin contact force.....no problem. If you have a light pin-strike from a lighten spring or by manufacture design.....they may not “go bang”! Testing will be the only way to determine for your particular firearm. memtb
There are many reasons not to and few reasons to go this way. I realize with all the shortages we sometime need to substitute but in this case as mentioned, changes in primer pocket alterations may render the cases unusable if you need to go back to regular pistol primers.
Also pistol primer cups are thinner and don't see the pressures 454,460 and 500 S&W see.
The 44 mag max pressures are around 35,000 CUPs and may not seal the primer pocket with large rifle primers upon firing
The 454 sees 55,000 psi
The 460 sees up to 65,000 psi, hence the reason for the use of large rifle primers. there pistols also use much different burn rate powders and this would totally change the load data.
My recommendation would be not to substitute any components.