### Quick links

- The book and how to get it
- Logicbites
- Corrections
- Exercises and worked answers
- On truth trees
- Other supplementary materials
- Other books

### The book and how to get it

*An Introduction to Formal Logic *was originally published by Cambridge University Press (2003, 2020). It began life as lecture notes for a course for first-year philosophers which I taught for many years.

As a small contribution to students in these tough times, a corrected version of the second edition is now available as a freely downloadable PDF.

Many people, however, prefer if possible to work from a physical book. And you can now get a print-on-demand copy of *IFL* as an inexpensive large-format paperback from Amazon. UK link; US link. Find on your local Amazon by using the ASIN identifier B08GB4BDPG in their search field. (You don’t get the original pretty cover; but otherwise the quality of the printing and paper is very acceptable, especially given the comparatively very low price. Apologies that this *is* Amazon only, but it keeps the price right down.)

There is also a nice but still inexpensive hardback version intended for libraries, available from bookshops and library suppliers as well as from online sellers, with the ISBN 978-1916906327. Note that since this reprint isn’t coming from a publisher with a marketing department, you will need to actually ask your university librarian to order a printed copy for the library. Please, please do so!

This second edition has been very extensively revised and rewritten, and one particular difference from the first edition should be highlighted here. The book now focuses on a *natural deduction* proof system done Fitch-style, while the previously edition introduced so-called *truth trees *(tableaux). However, revised versions of the old chapters on truth trees for propositional and for predicate logic are still available, but now as (freely available) online supplements; so those teaching a tree-based course based on the first edition aren’t being cut adrift.

If you want to get an idea of the way the book proceeds without skimming the whole PDF, then the section-by-section table of contents should give you a good indication:

If you want to know about the particular natural deduction system adopted — since no two books seem to use *exactly* the same ND system — you’ll get a good idea from

- Diagrammatic summary of PL natural deduction rules used in
*IFL2* - Diagrammatic summary of QL natural deduction rules used in
*IFL2*

### Logicbites

In lieu of podcasts introducing chapters or pairs of chapters (it’s difficult to handle symbols in an audio format!), here’s a series of bitesized informal written introductions giving some orientation in a reasonably relaxed way:

- Logicbites (first twenty now online)

### Corrections!

Inevitably — it is a law of book-writing! — there will be typos (and possibly thinkos too) which need correction. They will be listed on the following

Current corrections count: 0 major, 1 minor. (Printed and PDF versions of the book will be intermittently updated as corrections accrue.)

### The exercises, and worked answers

There is a (fairly modest) set of exercises at the end of most chapters. I am somewhat more than halfway through the task of putting stand-alone versions of the exercises here too, along with (often very detailed) worked answers.

If you are looking for answers to the exercises in the first edition, then go to this page.

### On truth trees

Ideally beginners should end up knowing about both ND and truth trees (tableaux); different teachers will make different choices of which to do first. If you want to use the book for a tree-based course, or want to find out about trees later, here are some more chapters! (Relevant exercises will follow.)

- Trees for propositional logic [Considerably revised from
*IFL1*] - Trees for quantificational logic [Temporary version soon to be revised]

### Other supplementary materials of various kinds

- Greek alphabet, and symbol sheet
- Over a hundred short answers to queries on elementary logic — apart from the sections on arithmetic and on Gödel’s theorem, mostly accessible to (near) beginners.

Here too are some legacy handouts that might still prove useful:

- Sets, relations and functions. In
*IFL*we really play down the use of set-theoretic notation. In parallel reading, you may well encounter such notation being put to use. This old handout might help to explain. - Proof systems It is hinted in
*IFL2*that natural deduction can be done in other styles than Fitch’s. For something on this, and on other proof systems, see another legacy handout. - ‘If” and ‘⊃’ says more about Grice’s theory of conditionals.
- How to read Dummett on Quantifiers.
- Intentional Contexts expands on some themes briefly skirted around in the book.
- Russell’s Theory of Descriptions expands on some themes in the book’s chapter.

### Other books?

See Chapter 3 of the *TYL Study Guide* for some suggestions for parallel reading at an introductory level. Later chapters of the Guide give reading suggestions for going further in logic.