Personally I don't use anything smaller then a 223 running at 2900 fps mv . For me shot placement is important but it becomes even more so with the smaller calibers . Yes I can kill a coyote dead in it's tracks with a 22 long rifle and a head shot but if I have a side shot and put the bullet where I normally would it's going to go a ways and I will need to track it with little blood to help me . So much of it depends on what type of terrain you are hunting in . If you are out in open terrain and your shots average 100 yards and sometimes longer you don't want a 22 mag or shot gun even . If you are in brushy country and your shots are closer to 20 out to 50 or 75 yards a shot gun or even some of the 17's will work for you most of the time if you don't get excited and place your bullet where it needs to be . Shot placement means so much more in those cases . There are those of us that don't get shaken and can do it regularly and are usually at a good distance for using small caliber rifles . Again a lot depends on your normal shooting conditions . It means that you have figured out the way that the majority of the coyote will react to what you do with your calls . when you lower the volume , change the pitch , make different sounds ect. . That is one of the reasons I say that sounds are seasonal like the puppy squeals are a spring and early summer sound , the majority of the coyote will charge into it and you don't have control of them when you may want them to come in slowly for any number of reasons such as you are in a brushy area and want to see more then just a glimpse of them making a run by , or as they are in an open area and you want them to come in running only part way then you want them to slow down and stop at a certain distance you change your sounds from a dyeing rabbit to a coyote bark but you have already changed the volume of the rabbit when they were out there a long ways to a lower volume as kind of a coaxer volume to get them started coming in the first place or to bring them in closer . Maybe you have a fight sound that you know will make the majority of coyote just sneak in to see what is going on and you have a coyote that you know from past experiences with it that will just set out there and bark so you use that sound for a longer amount of time and you just want to peak it's curiosity quietly to make it think it's tricking you and being sneaky till it gets to a good shooting place and will peak around a sage bush at you . You've shot a coyote out of a pair and one is running full out away , you want to stop it you go to the hurt coyote sounds almost as soon as you made the first shot it stops and you make that shot but keep doing the hurt coyote sound and here comes one from out of the brush or a draw that you hadn't even seen before as it was being sneaky because it wasn't in it's home range as the other two were . Perusing the predators is an art and a skill that you don't often pick up and become really good at in just a few trips out or by watching others do it on TV because there is so much that goes on that you can't experience in a trip or two even with someone that is very good at it and that is another reason I keep saying to keep good notes as to what took place when you were out doing it . You may get out twenty times this winter in 3 months then you don't get out again till next fall to call so many of us will have forgotten some of what we had happen last year in that amount of lapsed time . For most of us it's about enjoying our time not being frustrated by them not being fooled by what we do or don't do .
It's just that they don't want too many people with guns running around at the same time for safeties sake . You want to be out there hiding and calling and the deer hunters want to be out there slipping up on a big buck hiding in the brushy draws where your trying to call even wearing hunter orange an accident can happen . So many people will just wear an orange hat and camo every where else . Not every one is as observant as they could be . Some people don't hunt all year and only get out for deer season so they might get excited and not be as careful as they otherwise would be as well . It is always best to ere on the side of safety . I learned fast that I didn't want to be calling during other hunting seasons .
Several years ago my brother and were building houses together. We were building a spec house for a man that owned several hundred acres that he ran cattle on, it was covered up with deer. I asked one day if he allowed anyone to hunt deer? He went on a five minute rave about not wanting any deer hunters on his property. Several weeks later we were talking cattle and he was telling me he had a huge problem with coyotes taking calves in the spring. It was bad enough that he had to bring springing cows to a barn lot beside his house and still had to keep an eye on them. He made this comment about the coyotes, "I wish someone would kill them". I don't have much of a filter and tend to say what's on my mind so I replied, "maybe if you'd let some one deer hunt they'd help with your coyote problem". He just looked at me for a second and walked off. That was well over 20 years ago and as far as I know he still has a coyote problem.
There is a ton of good information here if one takes the time to read this from the start . Many people that have a lot of experience have given good sound information here for those interested in learning more .
geo4061 , as we have talked about coyote have a complex set of vocalizations and I have really just kind of scratched the surface of what they say to each other . I do know that often when they are excited , scared or angry they do mostly barking . I have heard them stand and bark for 20 to 30 minutes . I was den hunting up on the mountain once and came across a dog coyote standing and barking at another coyote . Being the way that I am I wanted to know what the deal was so I got close and sat to watch the show and see if I could learn from it . I watched with my binoculars and found that there was a coyote by some rocks that had a hole under them . After a while I figured that the one barking and showing it's self was trying to lure the other coyote away from the rocks with the den under it . When I got them both shot they were both males and there was 8 pups in the hole under the rocks . he did no howls just barks and a steady stream of them as well as being in full view of the other coyote . I have seen the same behavior when calling when the coyote are not comfortable with the situation or when I am too close to their den with pups in it and they don't know that I'm not another coyote . They act like a bird and try to draw me out away from their pups . They will seldom do much if any howling in that situation if they do howl it's just short partial howls mostly like a small yodel thrown in with the barks . So to me when they are barking it's an alarm sound and thus I seldom use barks by themselves but they do have a place in the world of calling in conjunction with howls .
I seldom use an E-Call to make coyote vocalizations as I'm not skilled enough with one and I can replicate what the coyote say to me better with my hand call as that is what I had when I started calling . E-Calls have come a long ways in just a few years . I still make most of my own howlers as that is what I had to do when I started out calling . The first howler I bought was from a guy named Bill Austin and he made them by hand out of PVC pipe and a plastic note book cover . He held the reed on with a lastrator band . I have found that a good piece of walnut has the best tone for what I do .