20190509, 22:21  #1 
Apr 2019
CD_{16} Posts 
Efficient storage of all primes up to some n
I've been thinking about some methods of storing a large sequence of primes in a compact manner, while requiring trivial computation to "extract" them.
For example, say I want to store all primes up to 2^32. The simplest way would be a file of 32bit words, which would take up ~775.5 MiB Code:
primepi(2^32)*4/1024/1024. %5 = 775.45250320434570312500000000000000000 So, one simple way to compact this would be to split this into separate chunks in byte ranges. Store all primes < 2^8 as one byte, then primes < 2^16 as 2 bytes, etc: Code:
\\PARI ? (primepi(2^8)+2*(primepi(2^16)primepi(2^8))+3*(primepi(2^24)primepi(2^16))+4*(primepi(2^32)primepi(2^24)))/1024/1024. %8 = 774.41827487945556640625000000000000000 What if we take it further to bitpacking and splitting our primes among every power of 2? Code:
? sum(n=1,32,n*(primepi(2^n)primepi(2^(n1))))/8/1024/1024. %10 = 749.43927836418151855468750000000000000 Since all primes > 2 will be odd, lets say we can save that last bit and just store our values as x where p = (2x+1) Code:
? sum(n=1,32,(n1)*(primepi(2^n)primepi(2^(n1))))/8/1024/1024. %11 = 725.20638763904571533203125000000000000 So, what if we just store the gap between adjacent primes? According to wikipedia, the largest gap for p < 2^32 is 336. This can be held within 9 bits. Code:
9*primepi(2^32)/8/1024/1024. %14 = 218.09601652622222900390625000000000000 And again since all prime gaps after (2,3) are multiples of 2, we can actually shave off another bit per gap stored, assuming the extracting program handles the initial case 2,3 specially: Code:
? 8*primepi(2^32)/8/1024/1024. %15 = 193.86312580108642578125000000000000000 We could extend this further by splitting the primes into ranges based on the bitsize of the maximum gaps in the range. I haven't yet attempted to estimate the size for such a scheme, but it might save a few more percent in the total size. One limitation of this would be that extraction is now restricted to sequential only, as opposed to before, where we could have random access if needed. That is, unless we implement some sort of "keyframe" concept, where we periodically store the full prime in the file, costing additional metadata, but maybe useful in some scenario. Anyways, we could extend the prime gap representation further, by splitting into ranges based on the bitsize of the maximum gaps in the range. I haven't yet attempted to estimate the size for such a scheme, but it might save a few more percent in the total size. I am wondering if any sort of trial factoring application or something like that would have a use for this sort of purely sequential representation that could be quickly streamed out? Or also, since I'm guessing I'm not the first person in the world to think about such things if there is any names or references for these sort of domainspecific prime compression concepts? Any other thoughts on ways to further compress this information, while still limiting the extraction complexity to simple,fast operations (all of the above ideas should be doable with essentially just binary shifts and additions). Of course LZ compression or something like that could probably compact things even greater, but then it becomes a question of if you are even saving any computation over sieving it yourself. I used the limit of 2^32 as a simple example which is easy to calculate, but of course, would be interested in potentially storing more. Some exercises in case anyone else finds this interesting: Give your best imagined storage scheme, and how compactly could all p < 2^64 be stored? Or alternatively, what's the largest n where all p < n could be stored within 1GB, or even say 1TB, etc? 
20190509, 22:34  #2 
Apr 2019
5×41 Posts 
Another idea would be to create a large sieve bitfield, where each 1 bit represents a prime.
By once again ignoring the only even prime 2, we could cut the bitfield in half 2^32/8/1024/1024/2 = 256 MiB Simple, but not as effective as the prime gap idea. 
20190509, 22:39  #3 
"Robert Gerbicz"
Oct 2005
Hungary
2·3^{2}·83 Posts 
Wheel.

20190509, 22:59  #4 
Apr 2019
5·41 Posts 
I have read a little bit about wheel factorization, and was honestly thinking about mentioning that too. It generates sequences of "mostly prime" numbers, but I'm curious what would be a good scheme to store precomputed "misses" given some limited wheel size, or how to determine an optimum wheel size for a given n?
Also I would count the wheel itself as part of the precomputed data. I'll have to think about it some to determine what kind of optimal gains this would entail. 
20190509, 23:18  #5 
"Rashid Naimi"
Oct 2015
Remote to Here/There
2151_{10} Posts 
I believe PariGP stores the difference between the primes which you mentioned. Lossless compressions such as zipping can perhaps overdo any math based compressions.
But all these will be to slow to read for very large files and likely less efficient than regenerating them from scratch. Another consideration is the enormous amount storage space required. There are some related estimates in this thread. https://www.mersenneforum.org/showthread.php?t=22076 ETA Here is another experiment that suggests there might not be much in the way of efficiency to store primes rather than calculate them. But probably a significant factor in this is the very poor read/write capabilities of PariGP. Last fiddled with by a1call on 20190509 at 23:49 
20190510, 00:21  #6 
"Rashid Naimi"
Oct 2015
Remote to Here/There
3^{2}×239 Posts 
Some related insight can be found here:
https://pariusers.pari.math.uborde...9Mw/primelimit 
20190510, 00:47  #7 
Aug 2006
3×1,993 Posts 

20190510, 01:11  #8 
Apr 2019
205_{10} Posts 

20190510, 02:55  #9  
Jun 2003
141D_{16} Posts 
Quote:
Second bitmap will store 7+30n, and so on. Total size for all these bitmaps would be (2^32/30)*8 bits or 2^32/30 byte which is about 136.5 MB. To see if a number k > 5 and < 2^32 is prime, decompose k into q = floor(k/30), r=k%30 if r is not one of {1,7,11,13,17,19,23,29}, it is not prime. Else lookup qth bit from the appropriate bitmap. 

20190510, 05:53  #10 
Einyen
Dec 2003
Denmark
2^{3}×397 Posts 
You could also store them sequentially: byte 0 will be 129, byte 1 will be 3159, byte n will be n*30 + {1,7,11,13,17,19,23,29}
If you go to a mod210 wheel there are 48 modular classes so 6 bytes for every 210 numbers so 2^32 in 117 MB (122.7M bytes). 
20190510, 06:31  #11  
Apr 2019
11001101_{2} Posts 
Quote:
I worked out some functions to help calculate storing up to various bit limits with different wheel sizes. I figured the modular classes for large wheels could be stored as gaps between classes, so many of the functions rely on looking up prime gaps from tables: Code:
bits(n) = ceil(log(n)/log(2)); \\ Nth Primorial (product of the first n primes) nthprimorial(n)=prod(i=1,n,prime(i)); \\ Primorial (product of all primes <= n) primorial(n)=nthprimorial(primepi(n)); \\ number of primes < nthprimorial(n) (see https://oeis.org/A000849 ) nthprimorialpi(n)={my(a=[0,1,3,10,46,343,3248,42331,646029,12283531,300369796,8028643010,259488750744,9414916809095,362597750396740,15397728527812858,742238179058722891,40068968501510691894]); if(n>#a1,print("error, unknown for n>",#a1),a[n+1]);} \\ number of primes < primorial(n) primorialpi(n)=nthprimorialpi(primepi(n)); \\ nth maximal gap between primes (see https://oeis.org/A005250 ) maxgap(n)={my(gaps=[1,2,4,6,8,14,18,20,22,34,36,44,52,72,86,96,112,114,118,132,148,154,180,210,220,222,234,248,250,282,288,292,320,336,354,382,384,394,456,464,468,474,486,490,500,514,516,532,534,540,582,588,602,652,674,716,766,778,804,806,906,916,924,1132,1184,1198,1220,1224,1248,1272,1328,1356,1370,1442,1476,1488,1510,1526,1530,1550]); gaps[n]} \\ max gap between primes for all p <= prime(n) (see https://oeis.org/A005669 ) maxgap_nthprime(n)={my(gap_prime_ns=[1,2,4,9,24,30,99,154,189,217,1183,1831,2225,3385,14357,30802,31545,40933,103520,104071,149689,325852,1094421,1319945,2850174,6957876,10539432,10655462,20684332,23163298,64955634,72507380,112228683,182837804,203615628,486570087,910774004,981765347,1094330259,1820471368,5217031687,7322882472,9583057667,11723859927,11945986786,11992433550,16202238656,17883926781,23541455083,28106444830,50070452577,52302956123,72178455400,94906079600,251265078335,473258870471,662221289043,1411461642343,2921439731020,5394763455325,6822667965940,35315870460455,49573167413483,49749629143526,1175661926421598,1475067052906945,2133658100875638,5253374014230870,5605544222945291,7784313111002702,8952449214971382,10160960128667332,10570355884548334,20004097201301079,34952141021660495,135962332505694894,160332893561542066,360701908268316580,408333670434942092,423731791997205041]); for(i=1,#gap_prime_ns,if(gap_prime_ns[i]>n,return(gap_prime_ns[i1]),if(gap_prime_ns[i]==n,return(maxgap(i)))));print("n=",n," max gap unknown for n > ",gap_prime_ns[#gap_prime_ns]," guess 2047?"); 2047} \\ max gap between primes prime gap for primes <= n (see https://oeis.org/A000101 ) maxgap_n(n)={my(gap_primes=[3,5,11,29,97,127,541,907,1151,1361,9587,15727,19661,31469,156007,360749,370373,492227,1349651,1357333,2010881,4652507,17051887,20831533,47326913,122164969,189695893,191913031,387096383,436273291,1294268779,1453168433,2300942869,3842611109,4302407713,10726905041,20678048681,22367085353,25056082543,42652618807,127976335139,182226896713,241160624629,297501076289,303371455741,304599509051,416608696337,461690510543,614487454057,738832928467,1346294311331,1408695494197,1968188557063,2614941711251,7177162612387,13829048560417,19581334193189,42842283926129,90874329412297,171231342421327,218209405437449,1189459969826399,1686994940956727,1693182318747503,43841547845542243,55350776431904441,80873624627236069,203986478517457213,218034721194215521,305405826521089141,352521223451365651,401429925999155063,418032645936713497,804212830686679111,1425172824437700887,5733241593241198219,6787988999657779307,15570628755536096243,17678654157568189057,18361375334787046697]); for(i=1,#gap_primes,if(gap_primes[i]>n,return(gap_primes[i1]),if(gap_primes[i]==n,return(maxgap(i)))));print("n=",n," max gap unknown for n > ",gap_primes[#gap_primes]," guess 2047?"); 2047} \\ size of wheel factorization bitmap for storing all primes < 2^b, using a nthprimorial(n) base wheel wheelbitmapMiB(b, n)=2.^(b23)/nthprimorial(n)*eulerphi(nthprimorial(n)); \\ size of wheel itself for wheel factorization, using a nthprimorial(n) base wheel. Storing the gap between each modular class wheelMiB(n)=(eulerphi(nthprimorial(n))1)*bits(maxgap_n(nthprimorial(n))/2)/2.^23 \\ total size of wheel and bitmap for storing all primes < 2^b, using a nthprimorial(n) base wheel wheeltotalMiB(b, n)=wheelMiB(n)+wheelbitmapMiB(b,n); \\primorial_numeral(n)= \\ Convert to primorial number system, vector of digits Code:
? wheeltotalMiB(32,3) %305 = 136.5333366711934407552083333 ? wheeltotalMiB(32,4) %306 = 117.0286050455910818917410714 ? wheeltotalMiB(32,5) %307 = 106.3901814021073378525771104 ? wheeltotalMiB(32,6) %308 = 98.21540557397352708326829421 ? wheeltotalMiB(32,7) %309 = 92.62673454240674648048412984 ? wheeltotalMiB(32,8) %310 = 91.91488279250780099343562301 ? wheeltotalMiB(32,9) %311 = 201.2229731159129979738501068 ? wheeltotalMiB(40,8) %312 = 22420.81124958361143420233199 ? wheeltotalMiB(40,9) %313 = 21559.29775874218603843453359 ? wheeltotalMiB(40,10) %314 = 24600.58342260438659563560571 ? wheeltotalMiB(40,11) %315 = 155250.8481199464342168732928 ? wheeltotalMiB(48,10) %316 = 5303727.482159470771217090061 ? wheeltotalMiB(48,11) %317 = 5264083.330768526806431184056 ? wheeltotalMiB(48,12) %318 = 10515841.27706460812349303656 ? wheeltotalMiB(56,11) %319 = 1313125198.888805102093294739 ? wheeltotalMiB(56,12) %320 = 1283029359.117316411105306225 ? wheeltotalMiB(56,13) %321 = 1493681169.718112853646773902 ? wheeltotalMiB(64,12) %322 = 327046489926.2217779744494826 ? wheeltotalMiB(64,13) %323 = 319311691479.0883192569093850 ? wheeltotalMiB(64,14) %324 = 322695438533.3537066932409118 2^40 in ~21.6 GB using mod 9## wheel 2^48 in ~5.26 TB using mod 11## wheel 2^56 in ~1.28 PB using mod 12## wheel 2^64 in ~319 PB using mod 13## wheel Quote:
Is there a formula to get the modular classes given the nth primorial? edit: Fixed code and results, Thanks LaurV! Last fiddled with by hansl on 20190510 at 06:54 Reason: Updated code and data with proper modular class count 

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