For targets and the occasional varmint the 204 will be sort of high cost for massive amounts of shooting but, if your mind is made up get after it. The 308win is a hell of a deer round I use it off and on for deer hunting back home in KY, the long barrel sucks to carry very far so. Mine is an older 700p so it came with a heavy barrel and hs precision stock from the factory mind you it's a lower end hs stock but, I've shot that set up consistently at 1000yd with the only modification a jewell trigger at about 12-14oz. It's awesome to be able to hang with and even beat a few guys with an entire set-up for under $1600.
I'm not a huge fan of the sps line of 700 mainly because of the lower end stock that is "cheap" plastic, it's a great base to build upon and with trigger work and a new stock you'd be in business for around $1000. I would personally lean towards the 700p series rifles because they start with a better stock I'm not sure all the calibers they're available in 223rem and 308win for sure. The heavy barrel adds the weight needed for long shots and if you aren't packing it long distances it's an asset. The adl line is a better quality than the sps line and I think you will be more satisfied with one. I've seen the vtr line with the triangle shaped barrel and this one had a sort of muzzle brake
built in, has two or three slots cut just before the muzzle. I couldn't say it reduced recoil but it did seem to make it louder, the triangle look is cool, the gun shot similar to other new 700's with similar round counts.
Regardless of what you decide I would pick up a rifle basix trigger kit for the gun they're cheap but, my buddies and I have been using them in all the builds we've done in the past year or so. I put one in my newest Ruger 77 and couldn't be happier. I've shot and own a couple jewell, and timney triggers and the rifle basix ranks right up there since the price is about half of their competition its a win win for us.
The availability of ammo for the 308 just out shines the 280 for me. I've got a few ar-15's, 243win 25-06 308win 7rem mag so the 280 to me is just limiting ammo and the advantages the 280 are lost on me. Under normal non ammo craze times you can find 308 on the shelf of every wal-mart or mom and pop store in the country. 308win is a "boring" caliber not in any way flashy or fast but it's consistent and responsible for many a filled freezer and taxidermy bill. If you want to reload the options there are nearly endless and you can even chase elk if you were inclined, brass it everywhere most of the time.
Keep us informed and just be patient there's a ton of knowledge to be had on this site.