Yes, but I think it depends on the chamber and die.
I started loading for my dad's (old but mint) 308 on the weekend.
The way I set up the gauge this makes sense to me, but simply look at the difference.
Once fired brass was X.X28" as I sized I went as high as X.X32" at one point. For that combination therefore 4thou "increase" in case head to datum line distance at a certain setting.
The die does seem to be sizing the base and body a lot before even touching the shoulder and sizing effort is quite a bit, even on my Rockchucker with Imperial wax. Far more than my 300WM in a Redding body die.
The brass is an once fired (old) local brand that seems quite thick (I'll measure necks at some point) and I suspect something like WW may size easier, but I've never got into brass thickness and sizing effort, so I've no idea if this would have any effect.
The dies are mid 1980's RCBS.
Ideally I like to neck size only and then set up the die to bump the shoulder only after 3 or 4 firings of neck sizing only. I've got no way of sizing the 308 necks only at this time, so I've set it up right away. I think that the 3 -4 firings way is a better way to allow for minimum resize. I generally find that even with full loads shoulders are only formed really nice and crisp after minimum 2 and preferably 3 firings (I suppose that takes us back to the discussion on springback!
hmm...). Anyway, that tells me that I still have some slop after a single firing. Once I feel that slop is taken up I adjust the die (under normal circumstances).
Not that I have a wealth of experience, but just how I do it....
I've used the bullet in the lands as AJ described to take up excess headspace on a first firing. The other way is to create a false shoulder (never tried it). As I understand it you expand the neck one caliber up and then partial size it back down to create a jam fit. You can do this with new brass.