Advice from a Novice, who was a rookie about a year ago. There is a lot to cover, I started to make a huge response but decided to cut it down.
First, if you don't have at least $500 to dump in this you aren't giving yourself much of a chance. If you have $2000 or more then you are in good shape.
Start by getting a basic ballistics software program and get an idea of how different loads perform over distance, driven at various velocities. For deer I'd recommed a rule of a min of 1000 ft lbs of energy to find your max distance for a given load. I use PointBlank.
The items mentioned (trigger, action, barrel) is where to start and hopefully can cost $200 or less. Then spend the $$ to buy a starter reloading kit $250, and some basic supplies(powder, bullets, primers). You can do a lot to improve accuracy with load development and at the same time after your initial investment in components your cost per round will be about 1/3 of retail for premium rounds. If you like doing this you will want to shoot a lot, so over the long run the cost of bullets will be less. Now, many people would read this a rush to post that you will get addicted and spend a lot of money buying newer and better stuff, they are right.
I would get a good manual on reloading and read about the basics. Others can probably recommend better, I'd say if you have a favorite class of bullets, i/e Nosler or Sierra, then buy their's as they all have basic reloading included. Once you have that down then I'd recommend buying "Precision Shooting, Reloading Guide" and read the first and last chapters. This will focus you on a few key ways to really improve accuracy (i/e bullet seating and how it lines up your bullet into the barrel). At that point you should have your gun done and you can then fireform some brass, then start developing a load.
You will need to make your gun shoot at or under 1" groups at 100 yards before you can start poking out very far if you hope to hit a deer in the vitals or even milk jugs.
I have managed to get 4 guns all shooting about 1.5 MOA out of the box, with just trigger jobs, down to MOA with just basic load development. Actually one is actually shooting .5 moa, and it's a thin barreled Remington Mtn Rifle. With the more advanced idea's in the Precision Shooting I think I can get the rest down even farther.
Have fun, I am!!