I know about ballistics, reloading, calibers etc. but I am not up on barrel life. I understand the basic concept, put a lot of powder behind a bullet and it will burn out a barrel faster. What combinations make for a barrel burner though? I know that the 308 runs higher pressure than the 30-06, but has a better barrel life. So does pressure play a role? Is it just amount of powder, wait no because the 6.5-284 burns barrels quicker than a 300wsm.
Secondly, is there any good long range hunting calibers that don't burn barrels? Something that can take an elk at range.
What caliber would you choose if it had to be cost effective to practice with, not burn out a barrel lets say before 3000 rounds, and could drop an elk at 1000 yards?
What you are trying to avoid is an "overbore" cartridge. This is where the water capacity compared to the caliber is quite high. In other words a 25-06 would be an overbore as compared to a 30-06.
As per dropping an elk at 1,000 yards, I personally don't shoot at game that far. I've seen elk get hit and keep going. I'm just not there yet. The longest shot I will allow myself to take is 500 yards.
There are pleanty of cartridges that can do what you want. Look into 338 Edge, 338 Lapua, 300 RUM, 338 RUM to just name a few.
AR's for coyotes
25-06 M70 for coyotes
6.5-06 Remington Custom w/Leupold Mark IV 6.5-20 tactical setup
AR10 for mule deer
6.5-06 M700 for mule deer
338 Lapua Mag M700 for elk
I think the most cost effective true 1,000 yard elk rounds are the 338 RUM followed very closely by the Edge. The Edge gives up a little on barrel life and burns a little more powder but you get a hair more power. Probably neither will make 3,000 rounds on a barrel but properly shot and cared for will be close enough. The brass is as cheap as it gets for that much smackdown at long range.
To me the 300 or 338 WMs don't quite make 1,000 yds. The 338 WM might get to 1,000 yds cost effectively if the 250 grain Berger ever shows up. The WMs are a little cheaper to shoot than a 338 RUM.
3000 rounds is really a big number. That is really a lot of shooting and reloading in one rifle. Most hunters won't shoot that many rounds in one rifle in a lifetime. Bench shooters, and builders, and some hunters do but most of the time your bbl life isn't an issue. I keep my barrels very clean and do not let them get hot at the range. I don't even let them get "warm."
A 300 RUM will easily drop an elk at 1000 yards. So will a 7RemMag, but the latter is considered overbore by many. Consider a 300 RUM and the 200 accubond or a 210 Berger or a 190 Berger.
Don't understand why one would choose a 7mm RM over a 300 WM or a 300 RUM over the Edge when we are talking cost and 1,000 yd elk. Will a 7mm or 308 caliber take elk at that range, sure. But are they really up to a 338, no. I'm not trying to argue. Just saying that there is a difference in opinion on whether the lesser calibers are effective. There is much less difference in opinion on whether a 338 is an effective killer at that range.
For cost and killing ability at 1,000 yds the 338 RUM and Edge are hard to beat in my opinion.