Re: input wanted!!!
You could surely kill a deer further out than 500 yards, but even though your energy is higher than 900 ft/lbs, I would consider the practical limit at 500-600 yards. You're correct, bullet diameter does come into play. A formula based on Bells knock out formula has been adapted to determine effectiveness of light HV bullets.
(Bullet diameter x velocity at target x bullet weight) / 7000= KO
For a Nosler 110 gr BT at 500 yards:
(.257x2330x110) / 7000= 9.4KO at 500 yards.
Compare a 308, 165 gr BT at 500 yards:
A factor of 10 for big deer, 15 for elk are supposed to be minimums. This formula,
originally designed for use with solids, seems to work in cases where standard energy values can be misleading, because of the effect of very high velocity using smaller diameter light bullets, being incapable of clean kills even though the energy value is considered sufficient. The formula accounts for bullet diameter and seems to be a decent alternative to using the standard energy formula commonly used. However, none of these formula take bullet performance into account.
"Let us speak courteously, deal fairly, and keep ourselves armed and ready"-T. Roosevelt