Yes, you can still use the Dewey rods with your calibers bigger than .22 but I would use your adapter that comes with the Dewey rod so you can still run the Kleenbore brushes. All the Kleenbore brushes are aluminum center and I think all the Deweys are brass centered.
The .22 caliber stuff though, you must run the 17 brush and 17 rod. Kleenbore sells their rod for about $10-$11, but if you already have a 17 Dewey rod and don't want to buy another brand, then stick with it. It will just take awhile for the brass center to quit leaving blue patches. It kinda has to burnish off. I'm not totally sure, but I think Kleenbore has a website at www.kleenbore.com.
That 17 rod should be on there. It is the only rod they make that has a blue coating. --goodgrouper