you guys are all arguing about something and forgetting a critical kinetic energy factor. torsional energy. this arguement as far as i am concerned was settled many years ago by a guy named P.O. Ackley. he was one of the first to recognize hydralic shock and document it's affects. he found out that it wasnt just due to the speed of the bullet, altho, it did occur far more often above 3 times the speed of sound. however, it also occured when the same bullet often dropped below 1000 fps and less than 850 ft/# of energy retained. he dropped wild asses out past 700 yards with a 220 swift. standard 55 gr. bullet. any of you guys will see that the energy-kinetic or otherwise described is pathetic at that range. those very tough animals went down like they were poleaxed. same hydralic shock affect as if they were at muzzle velocity range. he postulated (and this is the ONLY explaination i have heard that makes sense to what i have seen in the real world) is that the torsional energy developed by a bullet doing 4000 fps at 1-12 twist would be from doing 240,000 rpms. these rpms do NOT decrease with range and i would agree with him that this would explain the tremendous destruction i have witnessed at very long ranges. i shot 3 caribou with a 300 WM , 200 gr SGK at 2900 FPS over 1300 yards. one shot blew a front quarter off, a second caribou lost a hind quarter and the third was almost cut in half.
all the formulas you guys come up with wont do a thing because you failed to factor in the crucial "kinetic energy" that doesnt slow down with distance. RPM's. took an old guy years to answer that one. all the formulas given dont explain the destruction of the game by a projectile doing less than 1000 fps.
the same reasoning i have applied to other things as well. shoot the thing. if the bullet tumbles going subsonic, try another type, twist, etc. not all tumble and the jury is still out on why as no particular formula tells us why.