Originally Posted by bajaaa
I going through all that's been said and I'm getting a bit confused about bullet selection and weight, but that's probaly because everyone has different opinions about certain things as it should! More than one way to do it...
Maybe I should stay within 400-500yds I don't know right now... and maybe then I could shoot 140/154 grainers???
I don't know the pros and cons and how much diff it would make???
I just wanted a greater understanding in regards to range and BC and velocity and energy how it all works!
There are couple different ways to look at this. First let's address BC or Ballistic Coefficient. This is a given number to a projectile to determine its ability to maintain stability over a given distance. The higher the ballistic Coefficient the greater the distance you can shoot with great effectiveness. The lower the number, the shorter the distance you can shoot effectively. This number is based off of its ability to maintain its velocity and true flight when going super sonic to subsonic speeds without tumbling over a given distance.
Example (these are theoretical numbers just for examples sake, so do not judge your opinion of any given projectile from what this example is stating.)
223 caliber 55 grain bullet BC=.250
This bullet will be fast out of the gate. Muzzle velocity will be somewhere around 3300-3500 fps. At 100 yards it will lose about 500-600 fps and the farther the bullet flies the quicker velocity is lost and the more it begins to nose dive to the earth. Plus now this bullet is more subject to being pushed by the wind making longer shots out to 400-500 yards a lot harder. It is achievable but you must know how to read the wind. For example say at 500 yards this bullet is going 1700fps in a 10mile per hour wind it may push 30-40 inches from point of aim. (Numbers don't reflect actual calculations.) These bullets are good for short range target and varmints to about 300yards
Now take a heavier caliber.
7mm RM 162 grain A-Max= .625 (Designed for target usage at extended range and some use for hunting)
At the muzzle velocity 3000 fps, at 100 yrds=2850fps. This shows that the bullet can maintain its speed at a longer distance retaining its energy. At 500 yards this bullet will still be at a speed of 2300-2400 fps. In a 10mph wind this bullet will only drift about 8 inches. These bullets are good for 1k target and medium and large game to about 1k depending on actual velocity. One guy on this site shot an elk with a 7mm STW at 1300yards with this bullet and dropped the elk. So it is all about shot placement.
I checked the numbers on a calculator (to make sure I wasn't to outlandish with my example) and I am pretty darn close in my guesses. As you can see the heavier high ballistic coefficient round is going to be more consistent in flight, more stable and more accurate at extended range. Now I used two different calibers, but they are comparable for example and if you use a heavier .224 diameter bullet in a heavier bullet like the 80 or 90 grain bullet you will see the same thing comparing them to the 55 grain bullet.
The heavier bullets will also retain more energy for knocking down bigger game at extended range. The lighter the bullet the more speed you need to compensate for the lack of mass created by the heavier projectile. The only drawback to heavier projectiles is the length of the bullet. This length requires a tighter twist in the rifling to create and maintain stability. New rifles designed for long range usage generally have a tight enough twist, but you will have to do some research to make sure the factory barrel can handle the bullet you want to shoot. Otherwise you would have to get a custom barrel to handle the heavier, longer projectiles.
When choosing a bullet, you need to take into consideration the type of game you are harvesting. For lighter smaller game and predator, light bullets of any type will work. For Whitetail and heavier game, bear, elk, etc., a heavier bullet and its ability to hold together when piercing heavy flesh and bone are paramount when shooting long range. Berger has a different theory and most that use the bullet can't deny its ability to take game. Their theory is fragmentation within the animal causing mass organ damage and failure. Many guys use the berger because it knocks game down, is extremely accurate and has very high BC's. Their quality on their product is very high and I would suggest this as a viable option when choosing your bullet. The accubonds will hold together and do a better job of exiting the animal causing more bleeding out if they don't stop walking at point of impact. Other variations of this controlled expansion is the partition, barnes bullets made from gilding metals and not lead filled.
Hope this helps,
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