Accuracy goes to the shooter, and quality of the equipment used, not nessicarily caliber in this case. As far as Bullets are concerned, the 30 cal gives alot more bullet wt's to choose from. The .270win, and the 30-06sprg are based off of the same case, one is necked down to .277 the other is .308(as you may already know), so with same wt bullets, ie; 100gr -150gr the 270 shoots a bit flatter to a given yardage with most factory ammo in the same wt. However, the 30-06 can effectively shoot a 165-180gr and even up to a 220gr where as the .270 stops (with most factory stuff) at 150gr. My choice for Deer would be the 30-06 with a 165-168 gr, and for Elk would be the 180gr.
Effective range will be determined by personal ability,equipment ability, and self imposed max range that your given bullet choice will perform the way you want it to on the game your after in the area you place the bullet.
LOTS of deer and elk have been taken with both calibers, so both are good choices, but id give the edge to the 30-06 because of bullet wt's to choose from.
"Its not Rocket Surgery.....'
GOD,GUNS,&GUTTS MADE AMERICA, LETS KEEP ALL 3!winmag
"I have No idea why that cop made me ride in the back seat, when I Clearly called Shotgun!"